The Uralian Fold Belt originated due to the East European-Kazakhstan continental collision in the Late Paleozoic-Early Triassic. The Uralian paleo-ocean existed from the Ordovician to Early Carboniferous. It evolved along the Western Pacific pattern with island arcs and subduction zones moving oceanwards from the East European margin and leaving newly opened back-arc basins behind from the Silurian to the Middle Devonian. A fossil spreading pattern similar to present one can be reconstructed for the Mugodjarian back-arc basin with the spreading rate of 5 cm/yr and depth of basaltic eruption of 3000 m. Since the Devonian, the closure of the Uralian paleo-ocean has begun. A subduction zone flipped over under the Kazakhstan continent, and remnants of an oceanic floor were completely consumed before the Late Carboniferous. After that the continental collision began which lasted nearly 90 Ma. As a result, the distinct linear shape and nappe structure of the Urals were formed.
Библиографическая ссылка: Zonenshain L.P., Korinevsky V.G., Kazmin V.G., Pechersky D.M., Khain V.V., Matveenkov V.V. Plate tectonic model of the South Urals development // Tectonophysics. 1984. № 109. P. 95-135.